OTU Nassau 42-43

111 OTU Nassau, Island of New Providence, Bahamas ~ 1942-43

Pilot, Navigator, Instructor – Average, 21st August 1942.
RAF No.111 ‘C’ OTU Nassau, Bahamas
A J L Craig – Posted: 29th October 1942 to 28th September 1943
Although Alan J L Craig was dark-haired & blue-eyed he had to protect himself from Tropical Sun as he did not tan readily.

Operational Training Units
Prior to WW2, Aircrew completed their Operational Training on their Squadrons, however, once War had broken out and Operations were begun, it became obvious that this Duty could not effectively be carried out by Units & Personnel actively engaged in Operations.  The 1st solution to this was to remove some Squadrons from Operations and allocate them the task of preparing new Crews for Operations.  It was not long before it was decided to formalise this arrangement by redesigning these ‘Training‘ Squadrons as Operational Training Units.  These units were usually larger than a Squadron and were Commanded by Officers holding the Appointment of Officer Commanding.


HarryOakes&WestbourneOne area of Nassau where the Duchess felt at home was Cable Beach.  She and the Duke spent several weeks at Westbourne, the pink, 2-Storey home of Tycoon Sir Harry Oakes overlooking the Bay, while Government House was being refurbished.  He earned his fortune in Canada and in the 1930s moved to the Bahamas for Tax reasons.  Oakes soon proved to be a dynamic Investor, Entrepreneur & Developer in the Bahamas. He had a major role in expanding the Airport, Oakes Field, in the Capital Nassau; bought the British Colonial Hilton Nassau; built a Golf Course and Country Club; and developed Farming & new Housing. All of this activity greatly stimulated the struggling economy in what had been a sleepy backwater, with only about 70,000 inhabitants in the early 1940s. This activity took place mainly on the principal Island of New Providence; it was estimated that Oakes owned about 1/3rd of that Island by the early 1940s.  Oakes had become the Colony’s Wealthiest, most Powerful and most Important Resident.  Oakes was murdered sometime after midnight on 8th July 1943.  He was struck 4 times behind the left ear with a Miner’s Handpick and was then burned all over his body using an insecticide, with the flames being concentrated around the eyes. His body was then sprinkled with feathers from a mattress. When Oakes was discovered, the feathers were still being gently blown over his body by the bedroom fan.  Sir Harry Oakes’s Funeral was held at the Family’s Bar Harbour Estate.


Masonic Hall, Bay Street, Nassau

Training in the Bahamas –
During WW2, Oakes Field was used by the RAF as a Training Base.
The RAF’s No.250 Air-Sea Rescue Unit was one of the Units based in the Bahamas and they were equipped with Amphibious Aircraft & Fast Launches. They Operated from Bases at Fort Montagu, Lyford Cay & Harbour Island. Their function was to Rescue the Crews of Aircraft which came down in the Sea and to Co-operate with Naval Forces in the Area.  There was also a fully-equipped RAF Hospital situated at Oakes Field to deal with Service Casualties. Apart from Transient Aircrew Personnel passing through these Units, over 3,000 Officers & men were Stationed in the Bahamas.  A Canteen for the RAF Officers & Men was opened by members of The Bahamas National Chapter of the IODE (Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire) in the Masonic Hall on Bay Street, which was kindly offered for this purpose by the Royal Victoria Lodge.  The 1885 Masonic Hall Temple, Bay Street Nassau New Providence Bahamas The 1st Masons came to the Archipelago more than 170 years ago.


Formed at Nassau in the Bahamas on 20th August 1942 to Train General Reconnaissance Crews on US-built Aircraft Types, mainly B52 Mitchells & Consolidated B24 Liberators.  Training began, initially on Mitchells and at the same time, the Unit operated anti-Submarine Patrols over the Western Atlantic.  When they were completing the B25 Mitchell Course they were actually undertaking anti-Submarine Patrols at the same time as an Exercise.

From the moment they sailed into Nassau Harbour the following morning, they entered a different World. RAF Crews found Nassau a dream place to be posted, unfortunately, some only stayed a few months to savour the delights of the Duchess of Windsor’s “Bahamian Club” which along with her Private Beach “Wavecrest” was completely at our disposal.  If Crews were not Flying, they were Swimming at Wavecrest Beach.  They were also given the use of the ‘Bahamian Club,’ on the Western Outskirts of Nassau all of those Facilities they were told, granted by the Duchess of Windsor (Mrs Wallis Simpson-Windsor) whose Autograph they received during her Club Visits. Edward the Duke was Governor of Bahamas & Nassau was the Base for RAF No.111 Operational Training Unit.

In July 1940, Edward was appointed Governor of the Bahamas. The Duke & Duchess were purloined from neutral Lisbon on 1st August aboard the American Export Lines Steamship Excalibur, which was especially diverted from its usual Direct course to New York City so that they could Windsors.jpgbe dropped off at Bermuda on the 9th August.  They left Bermuda for Nassau on the Canadian Steamship Lady Somers on 15th August, arriving 2 days later.  The Duke did not enjoy being Governor and referred to the Islands as “a 3rd-class British Colony“.   Despite initial discomfort, the Windsors kept busy, the Duchess with running the Red Cross and both with Official Duties. Despite attempts to restrain their Travel & Spending, they went often to the US & Canada and enjoyed prevailing upon the wealthy contacts like the Sloans & Wenner-Grens to use their Yachts (Rene & Southern Cross) and also Homes (Marion Joe Carstairs at Whale Cay, Bahamas).  The British Foreign Office strenuously objected when the Duke & Duchess planned to Cruise aboard the Yacht belonging to a Swedish Magnate, Axel Wenner-Gren, whom British & American Intelligence wrongly believed to be a close friend of the Luftwaffe Commander Hermann Göring.  The Duke was praised for his efforts to combat poverty on the Islands, although he was as contemptuous of the Bahamians as he was of most non-white peoples of the Empire.  He said of Étienne Dupuch, the Editor of the Nassau Daily TribuneIt must be remembered that Dupuch is more than half Negro, and due to the peculiar mentality of this Race, they seem unable to rise to prominence without losing their equilibrium.   He was praised, even by Dupuch, for his Resolution of Civil unrest over low wages in Nassau in 1942, even though he blamed the trouble on mischief makers – Communists and men of Central European Jewish descent, who had secured jobs as a pretext for obtaining a deferment of Draft After being the only Royal known to serve in a Civilian Post, the Duke resigned the Governorship before the end of the War, and left the Colony on 16th March, 1945.

MitchellB25B25 Mitchell Training Wing 111 OTU
22nd August 1942 to 1st November 1943 – Above Average.

Coastal Command Nassau BWI.  Formed in August 1942 in the Bahamas to Train General Reconnaissance Crews.  Via USA & Canada – The Operational Training Unit also served as a Conversion Unit for not only Training newcomers to Flying Duties but moving already qualified Aircrew on from B25 Mitchells to the Consolidated B24 Liberators which were being assembled at 5 different US Aircraft Producers.  The location also enabled Canadian Air Force Members to Crew-up with their RAF Counterparts, whereby many Crews having completed Training at Nassau, would join No.45 (Air Transport) Group, to Ferry more badly needed Aircraft across the Atlantic ready for Active Service.  Pilots & Crew Members sent to Nassau for Liberator Training spent about 50 hours Flying on the B-25 Mitchell Twin-Engine Bomber before moving on to the Liberator.  To speed Exercises up, a returning Crew would leave Engines running on Landing, and another Crew would immediately take over.

The B-25 had a maximum speed of 290 mph and carried some 4,000-lbs of Bombs. Almost 11,000 of the Type were built. Of these, 910 were diverted to the RAF under the Lend-Lease program.  Many of these Aircraft never crossed the Atlantic, being retained at No.111 Operational Training Unit (OTU) in Nassau or diverted to No.5 OTU at Boundary Bay, British Columbia.  In both Schools, the Type was used to introduce Pilots to a Tricycle Undercarriage before graduating to the heavier Liberator Bombers.

A J L Craig –
by Air Officer Commanding No.45 (Air Transport) Group dated 24th May 1943 for Rescue Work at an Aircraft Crash on 29th April 1943

The 1st Mitchells to reach the RAF were 23 B-25B‘s which were designated Mitchell I by the RAF and assigned the RAF Serials FK161 through FK183.  They were delivered in August 1941 and were assigned to No.111 Operational Training Unit based in the Bahamas. These Planes were used exclusively for Training & Familiarisation & never achieved Operational Status.  The RAF was allocated 316 B-25J‘s as Mitchell III’s. Deliveries took place between August 1944 & August of 1945.  However, only about 240 of these Planes actually reached Britain, with some being diverted to No.111 OTU in the Bahamas, – some crashing during delivery and some being retained in the USA.

Flying Training at No.111 Operational Training Unit, Nassau, Bahamas, seemed too good to be true.  With good food, excellent sunny climate, loads of spacious skies to undertake Flying Training well away from interfering Enemy Aircraft; who would have guessed we were about to have our taste of ‘losing’ an Aircraft & Crew in strange, mysterious circumstances in such splendid peaceful conditions.

RAF No.111 OTU Oakes Field, Windsor Field & Ferry Command Nassau Association

Contemporary Account
No.111 Operational Training Unit Nassau 20th September – 27th December 1944 The journey to Nassau took 2 days by train to Miami, and a further day by Ship.  Nassau is on New Providence Island, 150 miles from Miami and I can hardly think of a more pleasant Site for an RAF Base.  We were soon settled into our Billets at Oakes Field, one of the Aerodromes on the Island, close to Nassau, where we would spend 2 months flying North American B52 Mitchells.  We were issued with very fine quality US Military Summer Wear – khaki Drill Trousers, Tunics & Shirts and the most comfortable brown shoes I have ever worn.  Extra pairs could be bought for £1 a pair.  There was a very fine Officer’s Club in Nassau with a Bar and a Swimming Pool.  The beer was the most expensive drink.  A Rum & Coke cost 3d.  We felt we were going to live the life of Riley.  The aim of the Course was to Assemble & Train a total of, I think, 12 Crews able to fly the Consolidated B24 Liberator on Coastal Command Operations.  There were 2 Groups of Pilots, 1 composed of ex-2nd Pilots from Squadrons, and in our case 2 ex-Instructors who had put in for Operations.  These were expected to become Captains, and they set about choosing Crew Members. The 2nd Group, of which I was one, were Pilots straight from Service Flying Training School, who were destined to become 2nd Pilots.  Most of the rest of potential Crew Members – Navigators, Wireless Operators/Air Gunners & Engineers were from earlier Training Courses, a few had Squadron experience.  It was evident from the start that this was a very intensive course.  Lectures were a continuation of subjects we had studied at General Reconnaissance (GR) School, with the addition of Bombing.  There was a ‘Planetarium’ for taking Astro-shots with a bubble Sextant.  This had a clockwork mechanism which ran for 1-min and averaged out the results – this to take into account any movement of the Sextant, something which was unavoidable when Airborne.  A Bombing Simulator had a Screen showing a low-level Bombing Run on a Ship.  The button had to be pressed at the optimum time for the release of a Stick of Bombs.  The accuracy or otherwise was recorded.  I found all this, when combined with Flying, a much more powerfulcomplex Aircraft, quite a strain, and I used to tumble into bed at night and fall asleep instantly.  Fortunately, we had a break at Weekends and were able to take advantage of the wonderfully relaxing fare available – Officer’s Club, fine Restaurants and especially swimming on Hog & Paradise Islands.  These were reached by Hog Island Freighters with glass bottoms giving views of the Subtropical Sea Life.  The OTU was divided into 3-Squadrons and we spent about a month in each.

No.1 Squadron – Flying began on 2nd October.  In this Squadron all Pilots received the same Training, which was to learn to Fly the Mitchell. This was a quantum leap for me – a Tricycle Undercarriage & 2 Wright Cyclone Engines of 1850HP with very large Propellers which nearly reached the Ground as I found out when I Taxied too close to a hurricane lamp and destroyed it.  It was a delight to Fly but very noisy and the effects of this on one’s ears lasted several hours after any flight.  The Training took a regular pattern – Familiarisation with all the Instruments & Controls, Circuits & Bumps, local Flying, flying on 1 Engine & 2 short Navigation Trips.  Early on I was corrected for approaching with 1 hand on the throttles – something which had been drummed into me by Sgt Scarlett at RCAF No.13 Service Flying Training School, North Battleford Station, St Hubert, Quebec.  The Mitchell could not be handled like an Oxford.  Two hands on the Controls were required.  All bar 2 of the last 3-Flights were done without Crew, and for some reason, flying times were logged as ‘Dual’ if under Instruction and as a ‘2nd Pilot’ if flying with another Trainee, even though no Instructor was aboard.  I flew 13-Flights under Instruction, 2 of which were at Night and 9 with another Trainee as 2nd Pilot, 3 of which were at Night.  I had gone ‘Solo’ after 7hrs 15mins.  During this 1st Month, one of the Trainees who had been an Instructor pulled out of the Course.  It had been a long time since he had studied Navigation, Meteorology etc and he found the going too hard.  Until I began to write this account, I hadn’t realised that I never flew in the right hand, 2nd Pilot Seat throughout the whole Course.  With the workload at the time I hadn’t queried this but just followed Daily Routine Orders (DRO’s) which gave the day’s Flying Schedule. In retrospect it is odd that no Senior Officer discussed this with me or gave me any explanation111OTULiberators

111 OTU B24 Liberators at Windsor Field, Nassau, LO is B.III BZ762 and MA is GR.V BZ810

No.2 Squadron – The Month in this Squadron was spent learning the Arts of War – mostly Bombing & Gunnery with additional Navigation & Practice Patrols.  All the Flights were done with a Crew.  For Bombing, there was a Target of Poles set up in shallow water, roughly in the shape of a Submarine.  The Attacks were made at a low-level, diving down to 50ft and releasing a stick of 12½ lb Practice Bombs.  The Approach was made at an angle of about 30° to the line of the ‘Submarine’ and I had to judge the moment to release the Bombs to straddle it.   A smaller number of attacks were practised dropping a single Bomb.  The results of both methods were recorded by a mirror camera.   Air Firing was done from the mid-upper Turret from 2 x 0.5-ins Browning Machine Guns.  We all had a go at this in turn as the Plane banked around a Target.  It was thunderously noisy and as I was wearing shorts, I got somewhat burned by the cascade of hot cartridge cases on my knees.  It was very satisfying to see the damaging effect of powerful Guns.  Early in the month, the remaining ex-Instructor Trainee flew into the Sea on a Practice Bombing Run, killing all aboard, including my friend who was his 2nd Pilot.  A tragic error of judgement.  About the middle of the month, there was a hurricane warning and a standard procedure was put into action to fly all the Aircraft, including the B24 Liberators, to Florida.  I was assigned one of the Mitchell’s and had been issued with some $US when the Hurricane changed course and we were disappointingly stood down.  I flew 3-Flights under Instruction and 10 on my own with a 2nd Pilot, 3 of which were at Night.  The last Flight on November 21st was a Crew Test under Instruction and the final part of it was to go through the procedures prior to Ditching.  One of the responsibilities of the 2nd Pilot was to release the Upper Escape Hatch.  He had been warned to point to the handle but not to touch it as it was a Hair-trigger.   He forgot, did touch it and it flew off, leaving a howling gale blowing around the Cockpit.  The Instructor removed himself into the calm of the Nose position and stayed there until we reached Base.  I wondered if the Seabed was littered with Escape Hatches. 


Consolidated B-24 Liberator GR.Mk V’s & VIII’s – No.111 OTU Nassau, Bahamas. A new and sometimes final posting for many Officers and crew.


No. 3 SquadronThis Squadron was Based at Windsor Field, named after the Duke who was Governor of the Bahamas.  It was situated about 10-miles West of Oakes Field and we were moved into Accommodation there.  It was now time for moving up another dimension, to learn to Fly the Consolidated B24 Liberator.  This was the 4-Engined long-range Bomber which had been used by Coastal Command so effectively to close the gap in the North Atlantic in the War against the U-Boat.  Most of the Techniques taught in the Course were based on this anti-Submarine background.  The Liberator was powered by 4-Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp Engines of 1200 HP and had a range of 2200-miles.  Flying began on 27th November and I had a Crew of 9.  It was now obvious that I had taken over the place of 1 of the ex-Instructors and was headed for a role as Captain.  Nothing had been said directly to me, and I just carried on as detailed in Daily Routine Orders.  The Flying Schedule was, as usual, intensive.  Procedures were more complicated than with the Mitchell and 5 Flights were fitted into the 1st 3-days, a total of 5hrs 55mins before I went ‘Solo’ and did my 1st Circuit without an Instructor.  Thereafter we flew mostly twice a day, excepting Weekends.  It was a mixture of Dual & Solo with programmes to exercise all the Crew, mostly in Anti-shipping Techniques- Turret-manipulation, Air-firing, Photography, Low-flying, Bombing, Evasive-action, Radar-homing and Fighter-affiliation.  Low-level Radar-homing over the sea was done keeping a Green-light lit on a Radio Altimeter set at 50-ft.  Dropping below this lit up a Red-light, rising above it, a Yellow.  It was advisable to Trim the Plane so that it required a slight forward pressure on the Control Columns.  Any wandering of the mind, though unlikely, meant the Plane would climb higher.  Navigational fixes were a rarity in Coastal Command and Navigation was almost entirely by Dead Reckoning (DR).  Every hour a small smoke float was dropped and sighted by the Rear Gunner who then read off the drift on a scale on the Turret Roof.  The Plane was then turned 60° and flown in that direction for 3-mins while the drift was again determined with a 2nd smoke float. It was then turned 120° in the opposite direction and the process repeated before turning back on the original Course.  This 3 drift Wind was used by the Navigator to adjust the Compass Course the Pilot had to fly to maintain the required Track.  The efficiency of the whole business required the Plane to be flown at a steady speed, direction & altitude.  I had no part in this new Crew selection, but they did form a very good working Team and were all very efficient at their jobs.  I think they felt the same about me, though I never did ask them how they felt about having a Captain with no Squadron experience.  The Final Test was on 20th December when we had to do a dummy Anti-submarine Patrol which lasted 8-hrs.  We had to fly a dogleg of over 300-miles, drop a large smoke float, circle and attack it with a live depth charge, then circle again to photograph the result.  It was almost impossible to be sure we could spot the exact place of the explosion, but we had been warned not to return without a photograph so the Beam Gunners took a guess and the result was accepted.  The explosion itself, of course, had been caught by the Mirror Camera.  Another dogleg of 400-miles got us safely home, the last few hours in the Dark.  We had our Last Flight to end the Course.  This was a Leigh Light Radar-homing at night on a Small Ship.  A few Planes had been modified to carry an Army Searchlight under the Starboard Wing so that Submarines could be attacked at Night when they were usually surfaced.  A clutch of Batteries was added to the Plane’s load, necessary to power the Arc.  The approach was made in complete darkness at 50-ft guided by the Radar Operator.  At a range of about a mile, the Arc was struck and a blinding light illuminated the Ship.  I had been warned never to be tempted to look up, but to keep flying on Instruments and be guided on the run-in by the Navigator.  It was a nerve-racking experience but we did manage to Home-in and pass over the Ship without any aggressive action being taken.  Total hours flown by No.3 Squadron were: Day 15hr 10mins, Dual 18hr 20mins, ‘2nd Pilot’ Night 4hr 30mins, Dual 6hr 45mins ‘2nd Pilot’.   We had a glorious celebration after the Course ended with an excellent meal in Nassau and plenty of booze.  We then had to get ready to leave this superb Station and travel over Hogmanay to be in Montreal again by 1st January.  – R Quirk


Leigh Light Pod

The Nacelle type Leigh Light, fitted on Liberators, was a 20-inch dia Arc-light mounted in a Nacelle 32ins dia slung from the Bomb lugs on the Wing. The Controls were Electric and the maximum Beam Intensity was 90M candelas without the spreading Lens and about 17M with the Lens.  Wing Commander Humphrey de Verd Leigh, an RAF Personnel Officer, came up with his own solution after chatting with returning Aircrew. This was to mount a Searchlight under the Aircraft, pointed forward and allowing the So be spotted as soon as the light was turned on. He then developed the Leigh-Light entirely on his own, in secret and without Official Sanction – even the Air Ministry was unaware of its development until shown the completed prototype.  At 1st it was difficult to fit on Aircraft due to its size. Leigh persisted in his efforts to test the idea, and garnered the support of the Commander-in-Chief of Coastal Command, Sir Frederick Bowhill. In March 1941Vickers Wellington DWI that conveniently already had the necessary Generator on board, (it had been used for anti-magnetic Mining Operations using a large electromagnet) was modified with a retractable “Dustbin” holding the Lamp and proved the concept sound.

“We finally finished our Oakes Field Training, but when VE Day arrived on 8th May 1945, both Canadians left us to go home.  The 3 remaining Crew members crossed over to Windsor Field, where we Crewed up with 2nd-Tour Pilots & Navigators where the emphasis seemed to be on low-flying in conjunction with Leigh Light Operations. This was the only time I was involved in any Accident at Nassau.  I was on Radar Watch on a Night Leigh Light Exercise when I noticed a ‘blip’ (the Liberator in front) had disappeared.   I, of course, reported this, but privately felt it could simply be a malfunction.  Unfortunately, this was not the case, and when we returned, discovered our accompanying Aircraft had not returned.  We were never told what happened, but all 8 Trainees were lost, and rumour had it, that it was due to the Pilot following the Leigh Light Beam into the Sea.”

P/O A J L Craig – Qualified as 1st Pilot B25 Mitchell 4th January 1943
Rank – Pilot Officer
The North American B-25 Mitchell was an American Twin-Engined Medium Bomber manufactured by North American Aviation.

RAF Bahamas Operational Training Unit.  It was used by many Allied Air Forces, in every Theatre of WW2, as well as many other Air Forces after the War ended, and saw Service across 4-decades.  The B-25 was named in honour of General Billy Mitchell, a Pioneer of US Military Aviation. By the end of its Production, nearly 10,000 B-25‘s in numerous variants had been built.  The B-25‘s were operated by the RAF during WW2, among others.  The prototype XB-25 1st flew on 19th August 1940. It was a Twin-Engined, all-metal, mid-wing cantilever Monoplane with characteristic twin vertical Stabilisers. Mitchell‘s were produced in many variations including Medium Bomber, ground-attack, Trainer (TB-25) and long-range Photo Reconnaissance Versions, the latter being designated the F-10. The USN designation for the Mitchell was PBJ-1.  Power by 2-Wright Cyclone R-2600-13 double row Radial Engines with 2-speed Superchargers (1750 HP each).  The normal Crew was 6 and all Crew positions were protected by Armour Plate. Wingspan was 67ft 7ins, length 53ft 5.75ins, empty weight 21,100-lbs and loaded weight 33,500-lbs. Maximum speed was 303-mph and the Service Ceiling was 24,200ft.  Maximum internal Bomb load was 6,000-lbs (or a single 2,150-lbs Torpedo) plus up to 2,400-lbs of Bombs on external Racks.  Depth Charges could also be carried by Aircraft engaged in Maritime Roles.  Defensive Armament usually included 1-Fixed & 1-Trainable .50in calibre machine gun in the glazed Nose, a power-operated Dorsal Turret with 2 x .50in calibre heavy machine guns, waist positions on both sides of the Fuselage with a .50in machine gun in each and a Tail Gun position with 2 x .50in calibre machine guns. That is a total of 8 heavy machine guns, making the B-25J a very heavily defended Medium Bomber.  The B-25C/D versions had a power-operated Ventral Turret instead of the waist & tail gun positions, but this was dropped when the latter was added.

Contemporary Account
FordHotelMontealI was sent to No.111 OTU (Operational and then a Train to Montreal. The Hotel Ford was our Accommodation while there. We were now attached to RAF Training Unit) in the Bahamas. Christmas Day 1943 we spent on a Train going through Georgia on the way to Miami, Florida.  A small Cargo Vessel took us over to Nassau.  The Ocean was rough and I spent most of my time in my bunk on the edge of being seasick.  Accommodations at Nassau were in Wooden Barrack Buildings and we were introduced to the practice of “Afternoon Tea” at 4pm.  Oakes Airfield was on the Outskirts of Nassau.  On 25th January 1943, we commenced Training on the B25 Mitchell.  The B25 was a fine Aircraft to Fly, visibility from the Pilot’s Seat was excellent.  However, the Wright Cyclone Radial Engines were very noisy.  Edward – The Duke of Windsor was Governor and we heard that when Night Flying was in progress he complained regularly of the noise.  The B25 Mitchell was used for most of our Flying, as it was more economical than the 4-Engined B24 Liberator.  Circuits & Bumps, Night Flying & Flights over the Islands of the Bahamas were what kept us busy.  As in RCAF Summerside (Prince Edward Island), all of our Flight Training Trips were over the Ocean.   At this time we were “Crewed-up”, that is we got together and Crews were made up.

Following Training on the B25, we moved to Windsor Field, some miles away from Nassau, and carried on Training with the B24 Liberator Aircraft.  After 27-Flights the last one was to Fly out to the vicinity of Bermuda and find a certain Ship.  At this time I received a promotion to F/O.  From the Bahamas, we had the usual rough ride on a small Coaster (Ship) back to Miami-F Transport Command.  At Dorval (Montreal) the total Flying time was 4-Trips on the Radio Range and the usual Circuits & Bumps with the B24.  On 26th May 1944 we signed for a brand new B24 Liberator No. EW257 and in the early morning left for Gander, Newfoundland with destination Karachi, India.  As well as our Crew we had P/O Woolverton to help Navigate. The Trip to Gander was, course 70º, 900-miles and it took 5-hrs Flying time. After the remaining hours of the afternoon, and refuelling, it was lift-off just as darkness fell.  On climbing away the Control Tower called to say that flames were coming from the No.2 Engine.  This proved to be the flame from the turbo-supercharger when at Take-off Power.  On reducing Power there was no problem.  Our destination was Lagens Airport in the Azores, course 120º,  1500-miles.  On landing at an Emergency Field on St Anna Island in the Azores Flight time was 9hrs, 5mins.  On this Flight, we flew at 9000ft mainly through the cloud.  On the ETA (estimated time of arrival) for Lagens we were still in cloud and could hear on the Radio other Aircraft down below trying to find the Airstrip.  Because a Mountain is beside the Airstrip we dare not let down in full cloud so it was necessary to divert to St Anna some miles to the South East.  Here the short, grass Airstrip had a Village at one end and a Swamp at the other.  We got down OK but tore up some of the sod while braking hard to stay out of the Swamp.  Facilities there were one RAF Officer and one Building for Housing.  For breakfast, I had some fat bacon.  In the afternoon we headed back to Lagens in low cloud & rain.  Found the Airstrip and with bad visibility got lined up and landed on the 3rd Attempt.  The Airstrip had a steel mat runway and with the stiff Crosswind, “Wayne “Wacky” Adams” Aircraft slid off the Runway and in getting back on had damaged one of the Tyres.


15th July 1943

Contemporary Account
We had left sub-tropical Nassau on the 27th of December and arrived by Train in frozen Montreal on New Year’s Day.  Tropical khaki had been exchanged for Temperate Blues, with scarves, gloves & greatcoats.  Winter in Canada is very different from that in the UK.  Temperatures were often well below freezing, but the air was dryer and it often felt, deceptively, not unpleasant.  It was possible to get frost nipped ears or nose without being aware of it.  The flesh became waxy white, and I was warned of this once by a passer-by and had to go indoors and do a spot of vigorous rubbing.  We again had Accommodation in a Civilian Flat near the centre of Montreal.  This was arranged through a Services Club.  Many kind Citizens had made unused Flats available for Servicemen.  A generous Transit allowance was added to our pay, and as we were there for nearly 7-weeks, we were able to take advantage of all the facilities of a big City and to have another short trip to the same Hotel in the Laurentian Mountains (Lac Beauport?).  I was the only one to have any additional Training during this time.  On the 6th of February, I did a short Flight at Dorval – a Dual check in preparation for the Flight to the UK.  On the 9th of February, I had another check, this time in a Hudson, to practice Radio Range Flying.  Although the Test was easy, it did not include the Radio Procedures for contacting the Ground Station as you passed over it, an omission which caused some concern when we used the Ranges in earnest.  

On the 11th of February, we all had to report to Dorval with our kit, to pick up a brand new Consolidated Liberator ready to Fly to the UK.  We were briefed to fly the Southern Route across the Atlantic, and we had a Staff Wireless Operator, familiar with the specialised procedures used, as a temporary Crew Member.  It was a very cold morning with complete cloud cover with a Base of about 2000ft.  Our destination that day was Elizabeth City in North Carolina.  We were to Fly almost due South, to pick up the Coast near New York, and onward to Elizabeth City using a number of Radio Ranges as we went.  Soon after Take-off, we were in the cloud, climbing towards our desired altitude of 8000ft.  The Plane was trimmed and the Automatic Pilot engaged.  While a check has to be kept on all the Instruments, the most vital are the 3 registering Airspeed, Direction & Altitude, and these are scanned frequently.  Less than ½-hr into the Flight, I noticed the Airspeed dropping off rapidly.  I immediately disconnected the Elevators from the Automatic Pilot and stuck the Nose down.  It was quickly apparent that we were gaining a lot of speed but the registered Airspeed continued to fall.  I levelled the Plane out using the Artificial Horizon and realised we were suffering from Icing.  Airspeed is measured by the Pitot Head, an open-ended tube pointing forward.  The pressure-induced gives a measure of the speed when compared with the Static Air Pressure, which is measured through slots in an outer tube.  The Plane had an Internal Static Head and when I switched over to this we got our Airspeed back.  We were lucky that the Icing had only after affected the slits in the Static head.  I also switched on a Pitot Head Heater and in a few minutes, all was back to normal.  We were soon out of the cloud and enjoyed a blue sky Flight down the Coast.  The Navigator kept his Navigators Log and gave any necessary alterations in Course, but in addition, I had to use several Radio Ranges.  This was successful except we failed to contact the Ground Stations, but they seemed to put up with our ignorance.  The Flight took just over 4-hrs.  As we were taxiing into our stance the Control Tower got us confused with another Aircraft which had landed just after us.  His instructions to turn right or left at the next intersection caused a few minutes of confusion but eventually, we were berthed successfully.  We spent the night there and the Aircraft was serviced & refuelled.  Next day we flew to Bermuda in just over 3-hrs and after a meal & refuelling took off for Lagens in the Azores.  After an hour it was dark so we didn’t see much of mid-Atlantic.  The Flight took 10½-hrs and we saw a magnificent Dawn.  We had been provided with a huge cardboard box full of US chocolate bars & cartons of fruit juice and we managed to consume about a 3rd.  We spent 2 nights there and then took off on 15th February for the final leg to Prestwick.  It was a blue sky day and we flew at 10,000ft looking forward to our 1st sight of Europe.  We did not discover immediately that our large cardboard box of chocolate goodies had been nicked by the Ground Crew and replaced with bread, margarine & jam!  It was wonderful to Fly up the Clyde Estuary and to find that the landing circuit took us over Arran and all the Hills I had climbed in 1940. – Robert Quirk
The mnemonic HTMPFFSGGBC for the vital actions before Take-off. If you are interested, it stands for: –
Hydraulics, Trim, Mixture, Pitch, Flaps, Fuel, Switches, Gyro, Gills, Brakes, Controls.

Widgeon (Duck) – The Grumman G-44 Widgeon is a small, 5-person, Twin-Engine Aircraft designed for the Civil Market

Supermarine Walrus – Technique of handling the Walrus
Firstly when in the Air it wallowed through the air and oscillated about 5° either side of the Course you were steering – no point in fighting it – just let it trundle along.  The next thing was the different type of Landings according to the state of the Sea.
Normal Sea
– a moderate chop – glide in with the Engine ticking over at 65/70 mph, level out and it sank down in the water – very pretty.
Rough Sea – up to 7 or 8-ft waves bring it in with plenty of power ‘nose up’ and feel the tail cutting the wave tops – judge your moment – close the throttle and touch down on the face of an incoming wave crest.  Very spectacular and for a few seconds looked as though you were playing Submarine.  At night or surface of water obscured by mist.  Get the nose high, 55-mph, plenty of revs, sinking gently down and wait for the bang as it hit the water.
All the above Landings were made into the Wind.  One other condition was a Crosswind and a long lazy Swell where it was possible to land and take off along the Swell.  After touch-down you connected the tail wheel (to act as a water rudder) – drop the wheels – to cut speed through the water and Taxi to the Dinghy.  Meanwhile the Gunner had scrambled to the Front Hatch, which he opened, and either pulled the Survivor over his shoulder or hooked the Dinghy with a Boat-hook (with a detachable head) on a predetermined length of rope floated down to the Rear Hatch which was lower in the water and easier to deal with an injury or more than one body.  The Gunner then slashed the Dinghy, closed the Hatch and settled the Survivor’s Amidships and we were then ready for take-off.
Before describing it, I would mention that we carried 4 smoke floats with a burning time of 2-mins from the time of it hitting the sea – our aim was:-

  • to keep sight of the Body in the Sea
  • an Accurate Wind Direction, and touch down as close as feasible. Our aim was to carry out the Operation before the smoke float stopped burning and if there were no snags we could do it. A mile off the Enemy Coast and 70/100 miles behind the Lines was a great incentive (there were usually 2-Gunners on an occasion like this…)

So now we come to the Take off – the sequence is always the same.
Disengage the Water Rudder, pump up the Wheels, make sure you are headed into the Wind (if in doubt fire a Verey cartridge into the air) – (A Verey Pistol cartridge propelled a little packet of fused gunpowder some 50-ft into the air, where it went off with a very loud bang and a puff of Smoke) – to give you a final check then open the Throttle and do 3 things at once – hold Stick (in this case a half-wheel) fully back in stomach.  Full Starboard aileron (to pick up Port Float) and Full Starboard rudder – then after clouds of spray again and speeds picking up centralise everything.  You should now be on the step, picking up speed and come off the water at about 60-65mph always provided you did not “Porpoise“.  No Pilot that I met really knew why this happened, whether it was Wave conditions or Swell but we all agreed that it started after you were “on the step“.  A gentle bounce maybe 10ft long & 6ft high without sufficient flying – the danger was that it doubled up successfully and as you came back on the Surface, drag cut off your speed until you were chucked in the air and stalled out & nose-dived in.  The only remedy was to Shut-down and start again.

A J L Craig – Above Average Pilot 27th September 1943

After WW2 on 1 June 1946, the RAF withdrew from Windsor Field and it reverted to Civilian use. Oakes Field (now Thomas Robinson Stadium) remained as the Main Airport in the Bahamas due to its close proximity to downtown Nassau At the Regional Caribbean Conference of the International Civil Aviation Organisation held in Washington in September 1946, Oakes Field was recommended for designation as a Long-Range Regular Airport.  Oakes International Airport was kept in Operation until midnight, 1st November 1957, when Nassau International Airport at Windsor Field was brought into Full Operational Status.


RAF Memorial Lytch Gate with Bronze Name Panels

Nassau War Cemetery, Maxwell Lane, Off Farrington Road, Nassau, Bahamas
60 Commonwealth War Dead of WW1 & 2 were commemorated in the Nassau War Cemetery, previously known as the RAF Cemetery.  In the entrance to the Cemetery are Bronze Panels forming part of the Local War Memorial erected by Public Subscription and which bear the names of the Airmen with no known Graves who were killed during Training while Based in the Bahamas.  All of the casualties Commemorated in the Cemetery were Airmen, including 6 Czechs, who were serving in the RAF and who died Ferrying Aircraft or whilst on Training Duty. The other casualties include 2 from the Canadian Army, a South African (Lt John Griffith Owen) & 5 Contingents of the local Bahamian Forces, 2 of the latter being from WW1.  The task of providing a final resting place for those Airmen killed whilst on Active Duty in the Bahamas was shared by their Colleagues and by many generous Bahamians who, together with the United States Post Engineers, constructed the Cemetery in the early 1940s when the Graves were initially marked by Crosses.  In the late 1950s, the Crosses were replaced by Headstones provided by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

19 responses to “OTU Nassau 42-43

  1. My Grandfather, Edward Scott, was a Flying Instructor with 111 OTU. He was killed in a Training Accident early in 1945. I have photographs of his time with 111 OTU that my Father has given me, but I can not find any information about the accident that killed him. Would be grateful for any leads.

    Liked by 1 person

    • The most common accident was Trainee Pilots flying into the sea by following the Searchlight Beam instead of relying on their instruments as mentioned in the page text. I can find no list of crew losses or accidents – Kew Archives may be able to help


    • I am an Author who grew up in Nassau and writes Military History about WW2 in the Region. Firstly, though I have not served, I praise your grandfather Flying Instructor Edward Scott for his Service, and am sorry for your loss. I have managed to buy the entire Daily Log of RAF OTU111 and most of the Appendices, including Accident logs. Combined with fastidious and generous volunteers in Nassau I learned the following: Flight Officer E Scott is Listed in the RAF Cemetery in Nassau and you can find out more from the IODE etc. at the Bahamas Historical Society website; https://www.bahamashistoricalsociety.com/newsletter/201111.shtml – You will be ably assisted by Capt Paul Aranha & Jim Lawlor, who hosted relatives of Saltire Veterans last year. As for the crash which claimed your grandfather’s life. I am working down through over 1000 individual Jpegs, but I believe it was either the unfortunate of 2 Aircraft which collided in Training on 23 February, 1945, with one Belly Landing safely the other Crashing on Land & burning with all lost, (or) later on, at 18th April 1945, when an Aircraft crashed in the Ocean South of New Providence, the remains being spotted days later and 2 Parachutes being recovered by a Rescue Boat but no Crew Personnel found. Finally, my book, which is a straight-up, no-nonsense compendium of each day of WW2 in the Bahamas Military 1939-1945 – Air, Sub-sea, Merchant, Naval, Civilian etc – will come out this spring of 2019, “Bahamas in WW2 – A Military Chronology.” The materials are declassified and not Copyrighted and available from The National Archives at Kew to one and all (I highly recommend researcher Simon Fowler, independent & fairly priced). Hope this helps, and all the best.


    • I have researched how your Father and his Crew died: According to the over 2,300 pages of OTU-111 Diaries & Appendices in my possession, on the 8th April 1945 his aircraft, Piloted by another and named FT took off in bad weather, which grounded 3 others and forced the other to land early. According to the diary itself, “Only B-25s FT and FF Briefed – out of 5 Aircraft – Air Exercise No.2 – Navigation, Bombing, Photography – FT landed early – bad weather – FF crashed into sea South of New Providence IslandFF had crew of 6 & an Instructor. 9th April 1945, B-25 FY airborne – carried out Search in area south of New Providence where B-25 FF had crashed – Oil streaks observed in Sea – Air Sea Rescue Marine Craft 2779 directed to area – nil result – only 2 parachutes located that had been assigned to crew.” Furthermore the RAF Memorial listed him in the RAF Cemetery in Nassau (not so far as I know in the Cathedral & not with his own Plaque or Headstone – see link sent earlier and article by Bahamas Historical Society). His death was recorded Operationally thus: “9 April, 1945: 169593, F/O E. Scott Missing, believed killed as the result of a flying accident.”


  2. In the penultimate Contemporary Report, there is a mention of a Consolidated B-24 Liberator being blown off the runway at Lagens, Azores. The Pilot’s name is mentioned as being “Wacky”. That would be my Grandfather: Wayne “Wacky” Adams (1915-1991). Wayne was an American who joined the RCAF before the Pearl Harbour Attack (7th Dec 1941). He was a Flight Instructor at No.? (Service Flying Training School) before requesting Operational Duties. After spending several days waiting for a replacement tyre at Lagens, Wayne and his Crew finally departed Lagens for India. They made it to Cairo and while there Wayne became gravely ill. His Flight Crew waited 2 months until a new Captain was flown in to take them on to India. Wayne spent the rest of the War in Hospitals and was discharged in April 1945. Wayne’s Crew continued on to join RAF 200 Squadron in Madras, India in March 1944 – as part of South East Asia Command – then on to Bengal where they flew Special Duty Missions supplying and delivering Guerilla parties to Burma & Malaysia against the Japanese. Thanks for providing information on this oft-forgotten aspect of Air Combat in WWII.
    Sincerely, – Robert M Holt


  3. Very interesting, however I wish to point out a few ‘Map Errors‘. Nassau had 2 Airports: Oakes Field & Windsor Field. The Airport map indicates that the present International Airport was formerly Oakes, which is not the case. The present Airport, called Lynden Pindling International Airport, was formerly Windsor Field, named on behalf of the Duke of Windsor who abdicated the British Throne. Oakes Field, named after a Canadian gold mining magnate, Harry Oakes, lay in Nassau. You may see it by carefully looking under the letter ‘N’ in the word ‘Nassau’ on the map. A small blue dot is the present Stadium, built on the Oakes Field Site, and in fact, that whole area is still known as “Oakes Field“. The Stadium lies within 2 Runways that may still be discerned – a V-shape. I was a Flight Engineer on a DC8 when my Pilots broke out of cloud while descending into Windsor. They were convinced that Oakes was the correct Airport, but it had been long abandoned by then. We finally pulled up and flew West, to Windsor. There is a Wikipedia URL which confirms many other Internet references, especially from the race-car groups which used both Airports for Nassau ‘Speed Week’: Windsor until 1957 and then Oakes until 1966. ~Roger


  4. Here is some more information regarding Bahamas Aviation History.
    Pan Am operated Flying Boats into Nassau beginning in 1929. Sometime in 1933 Harry Oakes, the legendary Canadian mining millionaire was looking to invest in Nassau. When Harry Oakes moved to Nassau in 1936, he financed Bahamas Airways and set about building Oakes Field, the Island’s first Airport, which opened in 1940. Until that time only Seaplanes operated in the Bahamas.
    When WW2 began, Bahamas Airways was sold to Pan Am and Oakes Field became a RAF Training Base, but Pan Am still operated there as well. A new ‘Second Airfield’ called ‘Windsor Field‘ was built to accommodate RAF Transport Command, which was utilised to Ferry Personnel & Planes from American Factories via South Americato North Africa .
    Windsor Field was abandoned immediately after the War, and Oakes Field reverted to all-Civilian use – until 1st November, 1957. At that point, Windsor Field which had been refurbished, became the modern Nassau International Airport we know today as Lynden Pindling International Airport.
    There were originally 2 Airports: The RAF constructed ‘Windsor Field’ named ater the Duke Of Windsor. Oakes Field 6.5 miles to the East near the City, survived until 1966, used by Car Racers, but is now the Thomas A Robinson National Stadium in Nassau has now been built on the old Oakes Field Airport, and 2 of the Runways are still quite discernible on Google Earth.
    ~Capt W R Michelson (retired)


    • Thanks for the info on the Nassau Airfields.
      I’ve actually had the opportunity to operate Learjets out of Windsor Field in the early 90’s. It was somewhat primitive still back then but maybe it’s more advanced now.
      Thanks again!


  5. My grandfather served at 111OTU throughout WW2. He was a LAC and also ran the Bar at Nassau. His job was part of being the Crew on a fast Launch to rescue Ditched Airmen. His name was George Shaw and his nickname was Tiny owing to his lofty 6ft 3inch height.

    Liked by 1 person

  6. I am currently doing some research about my Grandfather who was in the RAF. From postcards he sent to our Grandmother it appears he was posted to the Bahamas in 1943. If you have any information about an L Silvester in your records I would be very grateful.


  7. Dear Ms Silvester & Pathfinder Craig Followers
    Thank you again for your inquiry and apologies for delay. I am heading to Nassau for a week of research tomorrow and was getting ready. About your grandfather, British RAF Serviceman L.Silvester who served in Nassau, Bahamas with OTU111 in 1942-43, I hope you are not disappointed at te lack of information but you should not be:
    1. No record or mention at all in the 1000 jpegs, 372 pages & 117,400 typed Document recording ALL incidents on the Base. I do not have any complete muster of Personnel until mid-late 1945 or so when they all left, they took the de-mob very seriously. The other Personnel Records would have bogged down this Operational Diary and must be in the National Archives at Kew UK. I recommend Simon Fowler a private researcher there, at:
    Simon Fowler, 254A Kew Road, Kew, Richmond, London TW9 3EG, Telephone 44 020 8940 6884, Email simon@history-man.co.uk
    Website: http://www.history-man.co.uk/
    The NationalArchives.gov.uk as you know have a list of RAF Researchers on their Site.
    2. It is actually a good thing Mr L Silvester is not on the OTU111 Diary, as those that are on it are for the tragic reason they were lost in line of Duty, Killed, Maimed, Survived or Buried in the RAF Cemetery or the Christ Church Cathedral there. Just to be sure my system of researching Mr Silvester was working I searched twice, Silvester bounced back with 0 hits, and Silver bounced back with 2, both for a well-known Cay off New Providence.
    Below is proof. As the book. Bahamas in World War II, A Military Chronology is nearly done and I hope that it is of interest to you.
    Yours, Eric
    Capt. Eric Wiberg
    New York, NY
    C: 203 856 9677


  8. My grandfather, George Frederic Johnston, worked in the RAF Ferry Command. First, he trained RAF Airmen on Operation of the Consolidated B24 Liberator Aircraft being built for the War Effort and also Ferried Planes all over the World. He was Stationed in the Bahamas for a while. He died in a crash in Trinidad 14th October 1942. Our Family found a mention in a book once that said the crash was caused by someone on the Ground Crew setting the incorrect Fuel Tank. The Plane apparently ran out of fuel over the Island. He had always loved to fly and been flying for 12 years at least. This was his dream job. He is quoted in a local Newspaper Article about the RAF Airmen “The members of the RAF that I knew and taught, and there were many of them, are about the finest Group of fellows I have ever known… They are worthy of the best we can give.


    • Dear Mr MacEwan I have run the full names of your grandfather, George Frederic Johnston into the database of all takeoffs & landings and other Operational matters of OTU 111. They only include people who died in the Line of Duty, were Rescued or Buried in Nassau or were there when the Base was begun and closed. So that would explain why he was not cited. The Trinidad activity may well be covered by Gaylord Kelshall an older Historian at Chaguaramas and the hard-working colleague of his Mr Jerome Lee there is an Allied Air, RAF & Naval Memorial and Museum in Chaguaramas which may (understaffed) be able to help you. See also U-Boat War in the Caribbean. I hope this helps. Veteran, Unit Groups Memorials and Burial Sites are better sources than I am, as I write more of the Operational Histories and use just the source material I can reasonably get.
      Sincerely, yours, Eric Wiberg


  9. I have an unusual request, which is to find an individual willing to look over the 1st day-to-day chronology of WWII using largely RAF OTU111 Base Diaries from Nassau Bahamas, and to write a Foreword for the Book assessing or recognising the value of OTU111 to the RAF and overall Allied air effort, including anti-Submarine training. Furthermore, over more than a decade and utilising researchers at National Archives in Kew and the Bahamas National Archives and a Team in various Countries typing & researching, I have a list of every RAF and other persons who stepped foot in RAF OUT 111 Nassau Bahamas, from 1st to last days of its existence. The Book on every take-off and landing in WW2 will be published by 31st December 2019.
    Do you know of anyone who might volunteer to write the Foreword to this unique project, which I believe is the 1st to chronologise the day-to-day activities as the Battlefield which it actually was, besieged by some 112 German & Italian U-boats & Submarines, in the new world or Western Hemisphere? Could you possibly recommend me to someone who could & would?
    I have surprisingly been found lacking in this regard, at least as far as the RAF & UK goes. In support of this project, I can attach
    1) – Maps and charts,
    2) sample chronology pages
    3) the Project Overview & Pitch Sheets promoting and outlining it.
    In order to qualify for recognition for utilisation of source material by 2020, and as it is self-published, one of over 20 books of mine in recent years, and to get it off the desk so to speak, I am determined to publish this by 31st December 2019. The Foreword need only be a page or two, more or less. I look forward to your reply, thanks & regards
    Eric Wiberg, Boston MA ericwiberg@sbcglobal.net C: 203 856 9677


  10. My Father Barrie Clews served in the Bahamas with the RAF from. 1944-45. He showed me many pictures of the Duke & Duchess of Windsor and the lovely pictures of the Island. I would like to know more about the times and what he did whilst he was there.
    Unfortunately, he has now passed away and I still never found out why he was posted to the Bahamas. My father was from York UK and was stationed in Lossiemouth.
    If anyone remembers him get in touch.
    Thank you.
    His daughter.

    Liked by 1 person

  11. My father Dennis Such served on Windsor Field as Ground Crew (LAC) from the Start-up until the Close. He has a Photo Album with some interesting contents. The usual Duke of Windsor & Mrs Simpson, Wreck retreaval, the Full Field Complement take after being advised the Field was to Close and friend Gerald Cash (future Governor) & Hedley Edwards (Spiders Web Bar).

    Liked by 1 person

  12. My father, LAC A H Bruce. I know he was Billeted in Hut 18, but not sure which Field this was in. As he was a Radio Amateur he was put in charge of Radio Spares, and keeping them Serviced on the Liberators & Mitchell Bombers. He did his Training at Cranwell College. He met the Duke of Windsor & Mrs Simpson who presented him with a Tobacco Pipe. Sadly, my Dad was Invalided-Out after some months due to the Heat playing havoc with his feet. He came back on the Queen Mary. He flew on the Consolidated Liberator B25C Bomber FK75 and also on the Catalinia PBY No FP 356.
    I would be interested to know what happened to those 2-Aircraft
    Please. Does anyone have any other information on my dad or Photos of the RAF Station where he was Stationed? Thank you.
    Please do get In touch if anyone has any record of him.

    Liked by 1 person

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